Dublin See Online (Irish: Baile Átha Cliath, "Town of the Hurdled Ford") is the capital city of Ireland. Its vibrancy, nightlife and tourist attractions are noteworthy, and it is the most popular entry point for international visitors to Ireland. As a city, it is disproportionately large for the size of the country (2011 pop. Greater Dublin Region 1.8 million); well over a quarter of the Republic's population lives in the metropolitan area. The centre is, however, relatively small and can be navigated by foot, with most of the population living in suburbs.
Founded in 841, Dublin was originally settled by Vikings amongst a population of Celtic tribes. In the 9th century the Danes captured Dublin and had control until 1171 when they were expelled by King Henry II of England. By the 14th century the king of England controlled Dublin and the nearby area referred to as “the Pale”.
When the English Civil Wars ended in 1649, Oliver Cromwell took over. Dublin experienced huge growth and development in the 17th century because many Protestant refugees from Europe came to Dublin. By the 17th century Dublin was the second greatest city, only behind London, and a period when great Georgian style building were constructed that still stand today. Georgian style architecture was popular from 1720 to 1840 during the times when George I, George II, George III, and George IV of England were ruling.
In 1800, the Act of Union between Great Britain and Ireland abolished the Irish Parliament. From this point on, the Irish worked to gain their independence from Great Britain, which they finally won in 1922. The Easter rising in 1916 and the War of Independence greatly helped Ireland win their freedom. One event remembered as a key moment in Irish history is the Easter rising in 1916.
A failed attempt to take over the several important buildings, among them the General Post Office on O'Connell Street, led to the arrest of hundreds and execution of 15, now considered martyrs for the cause. Many believe that this event helped gain sympathy for the fight for independence from Britain.
Dublin is divided by the River Liffey. On the north side of the Liffey is O'Connell Street--the main thoroughfare, which is intersected by numerous shopping streets, including Henry Street and Talbot Street. On the south side are St. Stephen's Green, Grafton Street, Trinity College, Christ Church, St. Patrick's Cathedrals, and many other attractions.
Dublin postcodes range from Dublin 1 to Dublin 24. As a rule, odd numbers are given to areas north of the River Liffey, while even numbers are given to areas south of the river. Usually, the lower the postcode, the closer to the city centre.
If you're already in the city, the main tourist office See Online , located in St. Andrew's Church just off Grafton Street in the city centre (Dublin 2), is a good place to start for information. You can book accommodation and tours there, as well as find general information on where to go and what to do.
Although some of Dublin's finest Georgian architecture was demolished in the mid-20th century, a remarkable amount remains. They were a reminder of the past British imperialism and were pulled without regard to their beauty and architectural significance. They were replaced with modernist or pastiche office blocks, St. Stephen's Green (Dublin 2) being a prime example. Thankfully, attitudes have changed significantly, and Dubliners are now rightly proud of their impressive buildings from all eras.
Being subject to the moderating effects of the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf Stream, Dublin is known for its mild climate.
Contrary to some popular perception, the city is not especially rainy. Its annual rainfall average is only 732.7 mm (28.8 in), lower than London. However, its precipitation is spread out more evenly so that on many days there can be a light shower.
Winters in Dublin are relatively mild when compared with cities in mainland Europe -daytime temperatures generally hover around the 5°C (41°F), but frost is common during the period November through to February when night time temperatures dip below 0°C (32 °F) freezing point.
Snow does occur, but it is not very common, and most of Dublin's winter precipitation comes in the form of a chilly rain and hail. The lowest recorded temperature in the city is -12°C (10°F). It should also be noted that during the first week of January 2010, the city canals froze over for the first time in years--this was a common enough sight back in the 1960's, 1970's and 1980's. It could be said that Dublin's climate is very comparable to that of the northwest United States and southwest Canada, as well as to much of coastal Western Europe.
Summers in Dublin are also mild. The average maximum temperature is 19°C (66°F) in July, far cooler than even most of the coldest American cities. The hottest temperature ever recorded in Dublin is a mere 29°C (87°F), which in many other parts of the world, even at its own latitude, is just a typical summer day. Don't plan on too many hot summertime activities. Thunderstorms also don't happen very often in Dublin, on average only four days a year. Overall, the city's climate is mild but would be considered drier and cooler than western and southern parts of the island of Ireland.
Dublin is served by a two terminal airport See Online approximately 10 km (6 mi) north of the city centre. A second terminal opened in November 2010.
A full list of airlines flying to Dublin, along with timetables, can be found on the Dublin Airport website See Online .
Ireland's flag carrier airline, Aer Lingus See Online , flies to Dublin from a large number of European cities. Aer Lingus fares are often lower than other flag carriers, but in part this has been achieved by matching the service levels of low-fare competitors. As a result, they now charge for checked-in bags and seat reservation at time of booking. Aer Lingus staff is always very friendly and helpful. The planes and flight attendants are decorated in bright green to get passengers ready to see all of the green in Ireland.
Ryanair See Online , Ireland's second airline and Europe's largest low fares airline, has one of its main bases in Dublin from which it flies to a large number of European airports including Paris, London, Manchester, Liverpool, Madrid and Frankfurt as well as smaller regional airports such as Nantes or Kaunas. While famous for its low fares, Ryanair can be more expensive than other airlines for last minute bookings. Ireland's third airline Aer Arann See Online links Dublin to many regional Irish airports and some smaller UK cities.
Low-fare airline Flybe See Online links Dublin to Exeter, Norwich and Southampton in the United Kingdom, and also Jersey and Guernsey in the Channel Islands.
There are three types of bus transport to Dublin city:
Aircoach See Online express service (large blue bus) connects the airport and the city centre and many of Dublin's major hotels, most of which are on the south side of the city. Buses leave the airport every fifteen minutes and the journey time to the centre is approximately thirty minutes. The cost is €7 single or €12 return. Aircoach also offers services to other destinations within Ireland, including Cork and Belfast. Beware of taxi drivers trying to pick up passengers at Aircoach bus stops. They are strictly forbidden from doing this, but almost everyone is accosted by at least one taxi before an Aircoach arrives. They often falsely offer the same rate as catching the Aircoach so accept the lift at your own discretion.
Dublin Bus See Online offers an express AirLink service (route 747 See Online ) every 10 minutes at peak times to the city centre and bus station for €6 or €10 return. the Airlink bus is also included in the 1/3/5 days 'Rambler Ticket' (6.90€/15€/25€). This service uses the Dublin Port Tunnel to avoid the city traffic and can reach the city centre in minutes.
Dublin bus also have a number of other local routes that serve the airport, and these offer substantially cheaper standard services to the centre and further afield in the southern suburbs: these are non-express and stop significantly more times going to and from the airport. Cost is €2.65 and buses run every 10-25 min depending on time of day.
The 16 goes right through the city, stops at O'Connell Street and continues up Georges Street and, finally, to southern areas of Dublin (indicative : 40 minutes O'Connell Street to airport).
The 41 takes a slightly more direct route and finishes on Lower Abbey Street. It stops at O'Connell Street and close to Busáras (Dublin Bus Station).
Depending on traffic, journey times can vary from 25 min to over an hour. These buses are considerably cheaper than AirLink and Aircoach. Both of these local bus services stop across from Drumcondra train station which is on the Dublin-Maynooth commuter line. Some trains on this line continue past Maynooth and serve stations as far away as Longford. All Dublin Bus buses (except AirLink) do not give change and fares must be paid in coins. Ticket machines near a few outdoor bus stops, including the one at the airport, do not require exact change. Tickets can also be purchased at the newsagent inside the airport. Luggage racks are limited on the local buses, and it is not unknown for drivers to turn away travellers with packs that cannot be stored.
A taxi to the city centre should cost around €20 to €30: it can be comparable to or cheaper than the bus options if you are in a group of three or more (as well as a lot less hassle). Taxis are legally obliged to provide an electronic receipt detailing the fare, distance and other pertinent details. Make sure to ask for one as otherwise they often do not furnish such a receipt.
A metro connecting Dublin Airport to the city centre is planned, but no work has started on this yet.
Unless your destination is Dublin City, it is probably best to use one of the extensive range of other bus services that stop at Dublin Airport and so avoid the city centre traffic.